Mozambique; The Republic of Mozambique lies on the Eastern coast of Southern Africa. The country is bordered by Tanzania in the North, by Zambia and Malawi to the Northwest, by Swaziland and Zimbabwe to the West, by South Africa to the Southwest and by The Mozambique Channel to the East.
With a total population of 20.579.265 inhabitants, approximately 37% live in major cities and the rest in small cities and villages. The main cities are Maputo (with 931.600 inhabitants), Beira (with 298.800 inhabitants) and Nampula (with 250.500 inhabitants). Even though the country has suffered from wars, catastrophes and epidemics, the population growth rate is still high.
The entry of Portugal in Mozambique dates back to the 16th century. Only in 1885 – with the sharing of Africa by the European potencies during the Berlin Conference – there was a military occupation of the territory with the total submission of the states existent and therefore leading to a truly colony administration in the 20th century.
After a liberation war that lasted for nearly 10 years, Mozambique has become a free independent country on June 25, 1975, following the Carnations Revolution in Portugal, after which the Portuguese government signed the Lusaka Agreement with FRELIMO. Now with the designation of Popular Republic of Mozambique, a social regime of unique party was instituted in the country, which political and economic situations have progressively degraded until 1986-1987 when the agreements with the World Bank and IMF were signed. The regime’s aperture was then dictated by the economic crisis the country was living in, by the popular disenchantment with the social policies followed and mainly by the unbearable consequences of the civil war that pierced the country between 1976 and 1992.
Following the General Peace Agreement, signed in Rome on the 4th of October of 1992 between the presidents of Mozambique and Renamo, the country assumed a multiparty scene, with its first elections held in 1994 with the participation of the various founded parties.
Besides being an UN state member, an African Union member and a Commonwealth member, Mozambique is also the founder member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and of the Islamic Conference Organization since 1996.